Marcel Duchamp painted firstly of 1911 on the age of 24 a comparatively small painting (25 7/eight, 19 three/4 inches, oil on canvas), which he referred to as a younger man and a woman within the spring. 1 This painting has also been identified within the spring, and so the painting is referred to throughout this text. A larger model (58 5/8 x 19 three/4 inches, oil on canvas) followed. This second model was featured on the 1911 Salo d & # 39; Automne Truthful in Paris.2 Though no other portray is understood, some of it might be seen – now it is positioned horizontally – the backdrop of Duchamp's 1914s cease.
Here is an analysis of the first spring version and its position in Duchamp's larger artistic output. A few of my thoughts and interpretations and conclusions are based mostly on Duchamp's giant and rising scientific literature. Nevertheless, my observations and thoughts are formulated from my perspective as a practitioner. I’m fairly deliberately tried to comply with Duchamp's artistic process and his inventive päätöksentekostrategioidensa the logic of his visual artists' perspective.
In this article I take a look at the likelihood that the spring consists of the final magnum of Duchamp, Étant donnés (given by: 1º waterfall, 2º illuminating fuel), pre-shaped parts created in 1946 and 1966. The fact that a small, pure, thirty-five years ago The portray could possibly be seen as an evidence for the complicated, versatile set up that can be crushed by the Étant donnés to the readers just a little unlikely. Nevertheless, cautious examination of Duchamp's work of art and numerous contracts concluded in his notes permits, I feel that Duchamp designed and ready the early major works, which he ultimately produce. I admit that this course of is extremely uncommon that the majority artists develop their type over a time period, when one track or type represents improvement and maturation. It is recognized that Marcel Duchamp used the concepts he had formulated for years before they have been truly carried out. As Michael Taylor factors out: "Etant Donnes's pseudo-scientific headline is the source of a publication published for the first time in 1934 and known as Green Box:" Etant donnes 1 ° la chute d eau / 2 ° legaz d & # 39; eclairage. "3  Part I
Though it is atypically tough within the implementation, spring is a totally realized composition (Figure 1). ]) 1911 Oil on canvas, 25 7/8 x 19 three/four inches (65.7 x 50.2 cm) Art Museum of Israel, Jerusalem
The artist had apparently thought-about this painting necessary enough to offer its wedding ceremony present to his favorite sister Suzanne, who married Rouen's pharmacy Charles Desmares on August 24, 1911. Duchamp wrote on "A toi ma chere Suzanne – Marcel" ("Dear Suzanne – Marcel"). 4
Some researchers declare that spring is just a unfastened research. Nevertheless, exploring Indian ink and charcoal from the spring feminine figure dated 1911 and Standing Nude (Determine 2) adds weight. o to the argument that spring is an unbiased work, not a preliminary draft. 5
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- Determine 2
Everlasting nude, 1911. Indian ink and charcoal on paper 24 5/8 x 18 7/8 inches (62.5 x 47.eight cm). Silvia Schwarz Linder and Dennis Linder, Milan Assortment
Two versions of the spring may be seen as the final symbolic allegoric work group, which Duchamp started in April 1910 with the portrait of Dr. Dumouchel. This group consists of Bush (1910), Paradise (December 1910 – January 1911), Kaste (1911), and a draft of Japanese apple tree (1911).
Spring is an allegorical portray set in a panorama of wooden types. In the composition, probably the most vital are two elongated, upwardly directed pictures that reach forward and prolong from the lower edges of the portray on each side.
Both figures are limited to black contours. On the left is a nude; on the best is a male whose genitals cowl the leather-based upholstery. The back of the female head is visible on the top of the darkish hair; apart from his chin, his face is blocked by a better arm, which, like his second arm, is pushed upward towards the leaf canopy. Both female arms are made twice (Determine 3), which refers to visually wobbling limbs. This depiction of the orderly stations in area signifies Duchamp's unique makes an attempt to color a yr of motion before his two versions of Nude Descending a Staircase, 1912. labeled to point "waving" motion
The man's figure extends the best hand to the tree leaves. His second arm is bent towards the faceless face, his hand in the fist. The legs are roughened in. Under his ft is an ocher patch that may be a deeper shade than the underside proper quadrant of the dominant okra. In this area, Duchamp signed the work with block letters followed by 11, marking it Yr of Manufacture, 1911.
The top of the portray is filled with wooden leaves outlined on the bottom of it by angular black strains. refers back to the movement of daylight from the highest. Surrounded by these leaves, the slim black tree trunk is part of the whitened blue. The black line of the tree trunk doubles as the centerpiece of false coronary heart formation, which is the majority of the composition. The leading Duchamp scholar, Francis Naumann, who was in the spring's essay, was the primary to note this nice geometric simplified type for the human heart.7 The V-form of the guts types the lower body of the 2 figures. The left V outline of the swelling doubles as a skinny, curved physique of a tree or trout. Its leaves or flowers prolong from the left to the back of the lady's decrease back. The shape and tone of these leaves and the bent physique resemble the shape of the tree in another Duchamp portray in 1911, a draft of a Japanese apple tree (Figures four and 5). This can be seen as an early instance of the recycled content material of Duchamp's photographs from the second paragraph, which might be mentioned on the following pages
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- Draft Japanese apple tree, Marcel Duchamp, 1911, oil on canvas, 24 X 19 11/16 ″, collection Dina Vierny, Paris .
- Detail detail. 1 – Bent tree form shown.
On the left-hand aspect of the pink budded tree, there’s another tree with a simple, straight black physique. Above the dark inexperienced space there are a few dozen white, pink and green, which assist decide the form of the tree. On the suitable aspect, around the upper physique of the male figure, there are round shapes drawn in black and believed to symbolize timber. These are much less carried out than the left and aren’t painted.
The center of your complete composition and hence the middle of the guts shape is a circle whose circumference is energetically and repeatedly drawn with a black pencil or oil pastel. On this circle there is a small, pink figure, whose back is positioned approximately to align the center tree with a black tree trunk. The top turned to the left, its face, like the 2 nudity, is spectacular. One foot is straight down, while the fitting leg is lifted and bent down the knee. One arm is prolonged, and the opposite arm shouldn’t be seen
This congested circle also loops down in the egg nodes that intersect the fourth human picture over the top of the profile, also on an unseen face. The legs of this picture look folded within the kneeling position and partially minimize with the suitable-hand arced line. The again cover could be interpreted, coated by the knee circuit on the shoulders.eight
There’s a collection of spherical shapes which might be modeled in pink / purple and white relative to the left upper edge of the Kneeling image. Small black ones appear to mean tree trunks, probably a reference to a small picket home that is executed virtually like a toddler's easy "lollipop trees" rendering with brief, vertical blacks on some trunks. Pink / purple colors are just like grey ones. Their unified measurement combined with the symmetry of placement just isn’t convincingly organic in nature. The stepped symmetry of these uniform sized round shapes is just like the looks of the brick wall structure. Even the tone resembles the color of bricks. This facet creates some ambiguity in their appearance.
The V-level of a big heart-formed contour along with the straight legs of the two patterns is near the letter M. (Determine 6) enlarge pictures
Element of the sample. 1, Spring: M-Form
Spring is exceptional in many ways. Its two jumping numbers are overwhelming and make this Duchamp's most clearly probably the most emotional portray. They include each side of the composition, streamlined and elongated to increase a lot of the vertical dimension of the work, and create a framing gadget surrounded by the central portion. That their faces are without features, help their perform as a proper gadget, although without decreasing their symbolic objective.
Speedy circles drawn across the middle of the guts visually highlight the significance of this component, notably the positioning of the circle in the midst of the composition. On the idea of an accurate examination, the coarse high quality of the line factors refers to using oil pastels or pencils on thick, dried oil paints, not in bizarre oil blending. In other phrases, these circles have been drawn onto the composition after being painted (Figure 7). Maybe Duchamp understood that he might obtain an internal effect by rotating this centrally positioned factor. In any case, it is obvious that his intention was to emphasise this a part of the painting.
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Element of Determine 2. 1, Spring: Shade Pencil Cords Rotating the Centerline
Making an allowance for the comparatively long oils that dry out, it is unattainable that the portray was accomplished before the prescribed 1911s. The primary time Duchamp incorrectly updated considered one of his works.9
I want to touch upon Arturo Schwarz's interpretation of a attainable will behind a circle that represents Mercurius in a bottle. Mercurius (Mercury) was a generally used alchemical picture symbolizing the common transformation perform10. Schwarz describes an eighteenth-century tree for visual comparability (Figure eight).
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Anonymous, Mercurius in pullo.
Duchamp thought-about the interest in alchemy in quite a lot of conditions
He replied Biography Robert Lebelin connection with the question matter as follows: "If I have practiced alchemy, since it was the only solution to do it now, that’s, without understanding it. “11
Whereas some artwork historians agree with this interpretation, like most of Duchamp's creations, other views are plentiful. Calvin Tomkins, both of Naumann's and Duchamp's biographies, reject Schwarz's alchemy concept for the concept spring could be thought-about a constructive assertion about marriage. 12 Naumann suggests that the number of the Earth is probably prophetic of a married couple. 13
One other perspective is expressed by another Duchamp biographer, Alice Goldfarb Marquis, and artwork historian Jerrold Seigel, each of whom consider that there isn’t a number within the circle, but "several dance figures." from the center round that it accommodates "bad defined forms." 15
The weird, though not complicated, interpretation of this circle becomes a philosophical and inventive historian Thierry de Duve. In his photograph “Nominal Nominal Value” de Duve recognizes different orbital interpretations, together with the comparisons of Schwarz's alchemy and Maurizio Calves' references to ships in Hieronymus Bosch's Garden of Earthly Pleasure (approx. 1500). De Duve is of the opinion that the portrait of Jan van Eyckin's Giovanni Arnolfin and his spouse Giovanna Cenaman, or the portrait of Arnolfin's wedding ceremony portrait (1434), may be inspired .16 Distinctive principle, especially wedding ceremony The convex mirror reflects the pictures of three photographs, the bride and the groom, and the painter himself, and nobody is shifting away from the straightforward pattern of the orb
. In 1718, Professor Johann Conrad Barchusen of Leiden Chemistry had a collection of seventy-eight characters engraved, referred to as Elementa Chemistry, designed to allegorically characterize the particular strategy of alchemy transmutation, generally known as the "wet way", relatively than a shorter process referred to as "Dry Way."
The Mercurius image, which Schwarz chose to be corresponding to the mid-spring, is near the top of the Barchusen sequence, seventy-5. The caption for this emblem has been translated as follows: "When I was a lot of suffering and suffering, I was resurrected to be great and pure and impeccable." observing this small chapter, which is, nevertheless, unusual, in addition to another basic view of spring. Positioning the Legs – one straight, one bent and the one seen arm stretched out and extended into a small, vibrant portray patch, immediately above a small black line where the hand would look – are unknown
. The top-shaped shape, which is tilted to the left, approaches the laminate with a lantern within the lamp very intently. In view of this visible correspondence, the circle could be understood as a reference to a properly placed in the middle of the pattern body by means of which the scene is seen, a perspective that corresponds to his ultimate creation. As well as, however probably solely a random, yellow linear system within the spring, which extends vertically under the lowered arm, could be thought-about a visible symbol of the waterfall. (Figure 9)
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Detail of Determine 1. 1, spring: centerline contour with respect to node and other parts Étant donnés
Repeated, roughly Plotted strains that drop right down to type a knee circuit type a shape that is roughly similar to the brick wall opening (Figure 10)
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Étant donnés (given: 1st waterfall, 2nd illuminating fuel), 1946-66, view by means of doorways installation. Combined media. Philadelphia Art Museum.
The knee drawing was durable for Duchamp. In 1967, he produced eighteen dry dots settings, which are included in another area of Arturo Schwarz's complete works, giant glass and associated works. Half of them have been devoted to the master of their masters, even to the opposite aspect, and to the opposite aspect was a set referred to as Lovers
The latter one depicts a female who kneels as in prayer; considerably, it known as The Bride Stripped Naked. In addition to the apparent connection, the drawing of The Giant Glass (Interview with the Bride, Bachelors, Even) creates an ideal circle of connection to Duchamp's first work, which has this title, a drawing produced in 1912 when he was in Munich. These 1967 prints have been some of Duchamp's latest works created before the viewers was notified of the installation of Étant donnés, which occurred only after his dying. No matter his intentions, it is noteworthy that Duchamp in his last days would return to a theme where the kneeling / praying photographs have been first handled in depth in his early allegorical portray, lots of which portrayed figures in this place.
Let's go back Two spring figures. In the first complete listing of Duchamp's work, Robert Lebel speculates that painting is the reply to dropping the closeness of his siblings: “Each of his brothers have been married and his sister married to a pharmacy in Rouen in 1911: these have been just a lot 18
I consider Alice Goldfarb Marquis Duchamp , In the biography of Marcel Duchamp, the unique assumption of the inspired spring. , Cause la vie. Before the spring of 1911, Duchamp had a relationship with the model, Jeanne Serre, who is believed to be one of many figures represented by the 1910s painting The Bush. This relationship produced Duchamp's only youngster, born on February 6, 1911. Marquis believes that it is feasible that this youngster's delivery, Yo, and the top of the matter may be a real inspiration within the spring.19
The Schwarz and Cabanne division believes these two goal figures characterize Suzanne and Marcel, Schwarz insists that Marcel will resist the marriage. And while these restrict values might or is probably not Duchamp's main aim in the spring, they are clearly proven as a symbolic symbol – seen within the pair's upward action.
A particular, emotional physique language is one other factor that distinguishes this painting from Duchamp's different allegorical works from 1910 to 1911. These paintings are obscured by their symbolism. The glowing hand of Dr. Dumouchel's portrait is inexplicable, maybe referring to the "miraculous healing powers" of this physician; Relationships between couples in Paradise, Bush, and baptism are all seemingly symbolic of intent, and yet they’re stubbornly ambiguous. A uniform, Buddha-like picture of a Japanese apple tree is complicated.
essay Schwarz wrote about Marcel Duchamp's good works depicting the arms of spring figures, which have been lifted into the sky in a Y-formed image. "20 In truth, the arms of each photographs do not type any letter, much less Y once they rise within the leaves of the tree. Nevertheless, there’s a Y-shape between the arms of the figures (Figure 11)
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Detail of Figure 2. 1, Spring: Y-contour
This types the higher link between two orbits of the linear coronary heart type whereas doubling as a centrally positioned tree body picture. Returning to a small surrounded image, it is seen not only in the midst of the painting, but in addition in the midst of the guts-shaped symbol. Undoubtedly, the symbolic metaphor that one thing is "the heart of the heart" wouldn’t go from Duchamp's consideration on this period.
The writings introduced in spring typically cope with interpretations of the purpose of two photographs. Will they get fruit from the tree of life or from the Backyard of Eden? No, there isn’t a perceptible fruit in this painting. (The shortage of fruit is sensible for the title Spring when the fruit just isn’t mature and ripe to select.)
The highest of the material is roughly lighter yellow / white than the green summary leaves on both sides. In other words, robust daylight is clearly steered when filtering by means of the leaves of the tree. I recommend that these two characters regulate allegorically the "attainment of the sun".
Duchamp mentioned the topic of the sun a minimum of twice. In the identical yr, in spring 1911, Duchamp described several of Jules Laforge's poems, one in every of which is as soon as more for this company, additionally translated into Sun. Jerrold Seigel provides this summary of the poem: “The sun is exchanging insults with earthmovers who are threatening to warmth up. . . when the previous getting older star is lifeless. “21 One other instance is an easy drawing from 1914, which has the suitable to study from the sun. The music paper magazine describes a personality scuffling with an uphill bicycle. Duchamp believed that it can be included within the first collection of copies of works referred to as the 1914. His work in 1918, Tu. Duchamp began creating his ideas by way of in depth notes for future tasks. The late Walter Hopps, who was answerable for organizing Duchamp's first retrospective in america, gave an in depth analysis of the import of those notes: “Although they were not launched until 1934, some of Inexperienced Box's notes date back to 1915 [the yr] when Duchamp started producing Massive Glass. These notes are the right system and written form of The Giant Glass, which itself is a circuit diagram or perhaps a cybernetic abstraction. The Meal of the Bride, the Bride Blown Up by Bare by her Bachelors, even becomes a wierd and magical three-dimensional tableau, and Duchamp's magnum opus is now full: a work that exists in conceptual, schematic, and patterned type. "22
it is conceivable that when he realized the good glass and the m? pursue other benefits that take him through the years: "production" of numerous readings, his close involvement within the presentation of groundbreaking art exhibitions, challenging radically accepted practices, and, in fact, his life-lengthy fascination with the chess recreation. may be in comparison with the overwhelming chess season, which has the power to advance its business and strategy prematurely. n 1914 painting, produced in the second model of spring, is justifiable to know his artistic process (Figure 12)
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Stopping community, 1914. Oil and pencil on canvas, 58 5 / eight x 77 7/8 inches (148.9 x 197.7 cm). Philadelphia Museum of Artwork
It’s clear what number of totally different tasks match together. In other words, in fast succession, totally different tasks appeared in a single job. Prior to Present Notes For Giant Glass (its dimensions, "capillary tubes" aspect, and three normal stop positions) this does not apply to at least one epiphany being carried out one after the opposite. It was a pre-formulated concept that came from a rich notice
In 1913, Duchamp had developed his first schematic plan for a large glass. One yr later in his notes, the thought of manufacturing culminated within the production of three rulers / templates referred to as three normal stops. This info and these units can be utilized to the stop network. On each side of the second spring, black shade worlds have been spread, producing an area that is exactly half the dimensions of The Giant Glass. The three constructed-in stopping patterns have been used to type a stopping community in a configuration that might later serve two features for a large glass: small circles have been added to the whole curved line that confirmed an aerial view of 9 positions. bachelors ”(also referred to as Malic Molds). Linear design can also be a big glass capillary tube aspect, which is a large collection of strains reduce into the glass passing by way of the shapes forming the candidates / malic molds.
Right here we’ve a total of six lockout tasks which might be creating with a standard objective: the second spring model; three normal mode fashions; The Stoppages Painting Community, which incorporates giant glass half-scale dimensions, candidate positioning and first model of capillary tubes
Spring can later be accomplished chronologically. If it isn’t the first report for Étant donnés, it is at the least a presentation of a few of the most necessary visual parts which are central to this final work: a lying picture, one arm raised and holding an aloft, which I find an illuminating lantern near a waterfall when seen by way of the doorstep, which have to be seen by way of the opening of the built brick wall. The covert knee-shaped determine in the spring represents the voyeur, which is a properly-recognized artist's curiosity. In truth, a basic voyeur is a person who will get around or kneels to spy on a keyhole. Since Étant donnésia needs to be seen by means of two beeholes, the viewer has primarily turned into a voyeur – who takes the place privately. The 2 boundary figures are in green and yellow round shapes, which consist of a giant drawn heart image shaped by a destructive area on both aspect, that’s, within the "hills". interpreted far from the space. We know that when he painted the spring, Duchamp was inquisitive about allegory and symbolism, and Symbolic poetry was sufficient to make a collection of symbolic poems by Jules Laforgue. Maybe symbolically, this circular / peephole gadget illustrates something that may happen sooner or later – "in the hills and far" – when Duchamp was planning to truly build a Étant donnés set up.
Based mostly on the assumption that spring is actually the first research for Étant donnés and that it was already carried out before the studies of huge glasses, maybe its function as a marriage present is Duchamp's extra critical concern. Understanding its lengthy-vary significance, he might have given it to keep his favourite sister. I consider that Duchamp deliberately only wrote his sister's identify to emphasise his solely possession if the marriage didn’t work. (If that have been the case, it turned out to be sensible and is an instance of Duchamp's smart considering; marriage led to divorce seven years later.) Throughout Duchamp's life and in depth journeys, lots of his works have been misplaced, however Suzanne nonetheless had this portray in his dying in 1963.
Spring was never included in any version of the Boîte-en-valise, which was meant to present (on a small scale) all the works he believed to deliver his profession. One other necessary work, Étant donnés, was omitted as a result of he was recognized only after he died, based on his instructions. So it seems applicable that since his last, secret masterpiece must be out of his moveable museum, the first painting that led to it was omitted.
Because of these issues, my argument is that Marcel Duchamp's intention was to make his inventive career a full circle again to his unique analysis in the spring. His inventive curiosity and aspirations remained loyal to his early allegorical works, which had in reality coated their past for his or her landscapes and portraits. Allegorical works have been his first really unique expressions. Spring is consultant of his analysis on his ultimate allegory – Étant donnés.
I consider that his great works that begin in the spring of 1911, in addition to the three commonplace fashions and the readiness model, have been designed in a thoughts-set and time-consuming interval earlier than their implementation for several years and even many years
Granted, it is nearly incomprehensible that an artist who was so early in his profession, he might have designed, organized and internalized such an intense paintings or planned the dissolution of future creations throughout his life cycle. Then again, Marcel Duchamp, an unparalleled and troublesome-to-understand artist, was perhaps the only artist who was capable of attempt and drive away such a timed publication, a sustainable creation course of.
© copyright 2008 Kurt Godwin.
§ I thank Francis M. Naumann for his help and encouragement and for my editor Julia Moore, who helped me with this text.
1 kevät maalattiin Neuilly, Ranska. Arturo Schwarz, Marcel Duchampin täydelliset teokset, toinen rev. painos (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1970): 426
2 Francis M. Naumann, Mary Sisler -kokoelma. New York: Modernin taiteen museo, 1984: 172. Vuonna 1914 Duchamp otti mustan maalin maalauksen alkuperäisen vasemman ja oikean reunan päälle ja pyöritti sitä vastapäivään 90 °. Probably the most recognizable picture is that of a feminine nude, seen on her again because of the rotation. The rest of what remains of the painting is blurred, as if by a wash of thinned paint. The small print, which should have been fairly clear originally, at the moment are principally unrecognizable. The “recumbent” female determine is the exception. She seems to be more absolutely realized intimately than the lady in the first Spring.
3Michael Taylor, Marcel Duchamp – Etant donnes,(Philadelphia Museum of Artwork Publishing Division, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: 2009), 23
four After Suzanne died 1963, Spring got here into the possession of the New York Metropolis artwork gallery Cordier & Ekstrom and then was purchased for the Mary Sisler Assortment. Duchamp scholar Arturo Schwarz assortment acquired it from Sisler and in time donated it to the Israel Museum of Art, the place it is as we speak. Schwarz notes that the painting was relined in the 1960s, overlaying over the inscription. Arturo Schwarz, Full Works of Marcel Duchamp Rev. and expanded paperback edition (New York: Delano Greenidge Editions, 2000): 546.
5 This drawing research is nearly the very same measurement as Spring, measuring 25 5/eight x 18 three/four inches. The straightforward contour of the nude is so intently copied on the similar scale that it is just not inconceivable that it was used as a direct switch for the portray. The determine is allegedly a model named Reina who seems in an identical pose in an engraving by Duchamp’s oldest brother, Jacques Villon (Schwarz, 2000: 546.)
6 Though it is usually asserted that there’s fruit of some type in this tree depiction, none the truth is is represented. The title of the work specifies spring.
7 Naumann, Sisler Assortment: 139.
eight That Duchamp would depict a kneeling figure is critical. Except for the Portrait of Dr. Dumouchel, the first portray in his allegorical type, there are kneeling figures in all of Duchamp’s allegorical works. Further, in 1910, the identical yr of the Dumouchel portrait, he produced four pen-and-ink drawings, all titled Research for Kneeling Nude.
9 Talking with Pierre Cabanne concerning the illustration he made for Jules Laforgue’s Once Extra to This Star, Duchamp said, “I had put a stupid date below, 1912, when it had been done in November 1911, and I dedicated it to [F. C.] Torrey in 1913. When you compare the dates, you say, ‘that’s impossible.’ An amusing mess.” Pierre Cabanne, Conversations with Marcel Duchamp (New York: Da Capo Press, 1971): 46.
10 Arturo Schwarz, The Full Works of Marcel Duchamp, second rev. ed. (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1970): 238.
11 John F. Moffitt, Alchemist of the Avant-Garde: The Case of Marcel Duchamp (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2003): 9.
12 Rudolf Kuenzli and Francis M. Naumann, eds., Marcel Duchamp: Artist of the Century (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press 1989): 25, and Calvin Tomkins, Duchamp: A Biography (New York: Henry Holt and Firm, 1996): 53.
13 Francis M. Naumann, The Mary and William Sisler Collection (New York: The Museum of Trendy Art, 1984): 138.
14 Alice Goldfarb Marquis, Marcel Duchamp: The Bachelor Stripped Bare (Boston: MFA Publications, 2002: 59, and Jerrold Seigel, The Personal Worlds of Marcel Duchamp: Want, Liberation, and the Self in Trendy Culture (Berkeley and Los Angeles, College of California Press, 1995): 34.
15 Pierre Cabanne, Duchamp & Co., trans. Peter Snowdon (New York: Rizzoli Publications, 1997): 34.
16 T hierry de Duve, Pictorial Nominalism: On Marcel Duchamp’s Passage from Portray to the Readymade (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1991): 53.
17. Alexander Roob, The Airtight Museum: Alchemy & Mysticism (Cologne, Germany: Taschen, 1997): 145.
18 Robert Lebel, Marcel Duchamp, 1st American ed. (New York: Paragraphic Books, 1959): 6.
19 Calvin Tompkins, Duchamp: A Biography (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1996): 45.
20 Schwarz, 1970: 90.
21 Seigel: 34.
22 Walter Hopps, Susan Davidson, Ann Temkin. Cornell/Duchamp. . . In Resonance (Stuttgart, Germany: Hatje Cantz, 1998, and New York: D.A.P. Distributed Art Publishers, 1999): 75.
23 In his guide Ingres: Erotic Drawings, artwork historian and critic Stephane Guegan features a part dedicated to Ingres and voyeurism. The chapter concludes, partially, with the following assertion: “The theme of the vulnerable, reclining woman, viewed from the front or back, left other traces, often of a passably licentious aura, among the drawings Ingres bequeathed to his birthplace. On one is written: ‘One who looks in at the door.’ This confirms Ingres’ calculated voyeurism, more subtle than is sometimes thought.” Stephane Guegan, Ingres: Erotic Drawings (Paris, Flammarion, 2006): 59.
The subject of Ingres’ interest is noteworthy in relation to Duchamp’s. Included in Duchamp’s remaining collection of etchings, The Lovers, he paid homage to some artists he apparently held in high esteem. One print is predicated on a work by Rodin, one other on a Courbet. However he should have had specific admiration for Ingres, for he based mostly two compositions on work by the older master.
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